Respiratory disease and its complication are the cause of children’s deaths worldwide every year. Several epidemiological studies pointed out an association between quality of residential in inner-city and risk of children health.
However, Bio Med Frontiers few studies had been focused in high-polluted urban area in low to middle income countries.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between residential environments and respiratory symptoms including asthma among 658 primary school children living in urban area of Bangkok Thailand.
The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was modified to access symptoms during the past 12 months. Binary logistic regression model was performed.
Living near garment and clothing shop is associated with shortness of breath (AOR = 1.846; 95% CI 1.034, 3.297). Vectors in home is related to dry cough at night (AOR = 1.505; 95% CI 1.052, 2.153) and phlegm (AOR = 1.414; 95% CI 1.014, 1.973).
Wall dampness is increased odd of having wheezing or whistling (asthma) in the chest (AOR = 1.921; 95% CI 1.141, 3.235). Children age, gender, and a family history of asthma were modified the associations. Our finding may provide strategies focusing on living environment improvement with a specific group of children to address respiratory disease prevention.

Ordeal mechanisms, information, and the cost-effectiveness of strategies to provide subsidized eyeglasses.

The cost-effectiveness of policies providing subsidized health goods is often compromised by limited use of the goods provided. Through a randomized trial involving 251 primary schools in western China, Study About we tested two approaches to improve the cost-effectiveness of a program distributing free eyeglasses to myopic children.
Relative to delivery of free eyeglasses to schools, we find that providing vouchers redeemable in local optical shops modestly improved the targeting of eyeglasses to those who would use them without reducing effective coverage.
Information provided through a health education campaign increased eyeglass use when eyeglasses were delivered to schools but had no effect when requiring voucher redemption or when families were only given a prescription for eyeglasses to be purchased on the market.
Though most expensive, free delivery to schools with a health education campaign was the most socially cost-effective approach tested and increased effective coverage of eyeglasses by 18.5 percentage points after seven months.

Determinants of pre-vaccination antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)

Prospective population-based studies investigating multiple determinants of pre-vaccination antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 are lacking. 
We did a prospective population-based study in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-naive UK adults recruited between May 1 and November 2, 2020, without a positive swab test result for SARS-CoV-2 prior to enrolment.
Information on 88 potential sociodemographic, behavioral, nutritional, clinical and pharmacological risk factors was obtained through online questionnaires, and combined IgG/IgA/IgM responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein were determined in dried blood spots obtained between November 6, 2020, and April 18, 2021.
We used logistic and linear regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and adjusted geometric mean ratios (aGMRs) for potential determinants of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity (all participants) and antibody titres (seropositive participants only), respectively.
  1.  Of 11,130 participants, 1696 (15.2%) were seropositive. Factors independently associated with higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity included frontline health/care occupation (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.48-2.33), international travel (1.20, 1.07-1.35), number of visits to shops and other indoor public places (≥ 5 vs. 0/week: 1.29, 1.06-1.57, P-trend = 0.01), body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 vs. < 25 kg/m2 (1.24, 1.11-1.39), South Asian vs. White ethnicity (1.65, 1.10-2.49) and alcohol consumption ≥15 vs. 0 units/week (1.23, 1.04-1.46). Light physical exercise associated with lower risk (0.80, 0.70-0.93, for ≥ 10 vs. 0-4 h/week). Among seropositive participants, higher titres of anti-Spike antibodies associated with factors including BMI ≥ 30 vs. < 25 kg/m2 (aGMR 1.10, 1.02-1.19), South Asian vs. White ethnicity (1.22, 1.04-1.44), frontline health/care occupation (1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.39), international travel (1.11, 1.05-1.16) and number of visits to shops and other indoor public places (≥ 5 vs. 0/week: 1.12, 1.02-1.23, P-trend = 0.01); these associations were not substantially attenuated by adjustment for COVID-19 disease severity.
  2.  Higher alcohol consumption and lower light physical exercise represent new modifiable risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recognized associations between South Asian ethnic origin and obesity and higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity were independent of other sociodemographic, behavioural, nutritional, clinical, and pharmacological factors investigated. Among seropositive participants, higher titres of anti-Spike antibodies in people of South Asian ancestry and in obese people were not explained by greater COVID-19 disease severity in these groups.

From small molecules to polymeric probes: recent advancements of formaldehyde sensors.

  • Formaldehyde is a well-known industrial material regularly used in fishery, vegetable markets, and fruit shops for maintaining their freshness. But due to its carcinogenic nature and other toxic effects, it is very important to detect it in very low concentrations.
  • In recent years, amine-containing fluorescent probes have gained significant attention for designing formaldehyde sensors. However, the major drawbacks of these small molecular probes are low sensitivity and long exposure time, which limits their real-life applications.
  • In this regard, polymeric probes have gained significant attention to overcome the aforementioned problems. Several polymeric probes have been utilized as a coating material, nanoparticle, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), etc., for the selective and sensitive detection of formaldehyde.
  • The main objective of this review article is to comprehensively describe the recent advancements in formaldehyde sensors based on small molecules and polymers, and their successful applications in various fields, especially in situ formaldehyde sensing in biological systems.

A Community Health Volunteer Involvement Program for Glycated Hemoglobin Reduction Among Thai Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes: A Mixed-Method Study.

 Diabetes mellitus is increasing and a shortage exists of nurses to care for patients. Community health volunteers (CHVs) pose potential supportive networks in assisting patients to perform healthy behaviors.
The study aimed to develop and investigate the effects of a CHV involvement program on reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels among Thai patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.
 This sequential mixed-method study was conducted from January to June 2019. Sixty patients with HbA1c exceeding 7% were recruited from 2 communities assigned as the intervention and comparison groups.
Using King’s General Systems Framework as a basis to develop the program, the study initially explored the perceptions of diabetes and its management among patients, family members, and CHVs.
Then, a quasi-experimental study with 2 groups pretest-posttest design was conducted and compared with usual care.
The intervention included educational sessions, home visits, and activities created by CHVs including a campaign, broadcasting, and health food shops. Quantitative data were collected at baseline and 20-week follow-up and analyzed by descriptive statistics, Independent t-test, and paired t-test.

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The intervention group exhibited a lower mean HbA1c (p < .001) and reported significant, improvement concerning diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived support, and behavior compared with the comparison group at the end of the study (Cohen’s d > 1.0, effect size large).
Applying this framework to develop the program could benefit glycemic control among patients with uncontrolled diabetes residing in communities. Further studies should be conducted on a large sample to demonstrate the efficacy of the program.